Private Area
Cuba 1 1


Total area: 799,380 Km2
Population: 22.9 million
HDI rank: 165; HDI value: 0.284
Population living below the poverty line: 70%
GDP per capita: 1,000 USD PPP
Life expectancy: 51.78 years    
Illiteracy rate (women): 68.6%
Illiteracy rate (men): 37.7%
Infant mortality rate: 78.9/1,000
Fertility rate: 5.46 children/woman
Access to drinking water: 47%


Achieving the MDGs set out in September 2000 is a complex task which will require a joint effort by civilian society and the Mozambican government. Change and development are needed in key areas such as education, health and the economy.

There has been notable concern in adapting the education system to requirements, with positive indicators already in evidence, such as the rise in the number of pupils reaching Year 5 (from 22% in 1997 to 38.7% in 2003) and enrolment in primary school reaching a figure of 60%. There are certain peculiarities as regards access to education, such as gender inequality, that are related to the Mozambican reality.

Most of the pupils are male and the majority of education services are to be found in urban areas.
A considerable effort will have to be made to create and assert a health system with increasing human resources and infrastructure. Urgent steps include speeding up the fight against serious diseases and improving medical assistance during pregnancy and childbirth in order to achieve MDGs 4 and 6.

Infant mortality has been decreasing (down from 143 deaths per thousand live-births in 1990 to 109 in 2003). A similar trend has been seen in childhood deaths affecting the under 5s, down from 219 per thousand live-births in 1997 to 178 in 2003.

Mozambique’s biodiversity is vast but the environment continues to suffer harm, demonstrating the difficulties that people have in living in harmony with their surroundings, and which could put the sustainability of development at risk. It is essential that regulations are created to deal with matters related to the forest and that the competent authorities are provided with the means to enable the law to be upheld and allow the sustainable management of existing natural resources.

The G8’s Debt Relief Plan announced in July 2005, which cancelled the debt of the 18 poorest countries in the world, Mozambique included, may allow for greater (domestic and foreign) investment in priority areas, and thus contribute to the strengthening of the Mozambican economy.


Source: Human Development Report - UNDP; The World Factbook; Human Development Report - UNDP


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