Private Area
Cuba 1 1


Total area: 130,370 Km2
Population: 5.6 million
HDI rank: 115; HDI value: 0.565
Population living below the poverty line: 48%
GDP per capita: 2,900 USD PPP
Life expectancy: 73.8 years
Illiteracy rate (women): 32.2%
Illiteracy rate (men): 32.8%
Infant mortality rate: 22.64/1,000
Fertility rate: 2.12 children/woman
Access to drinking water: 77%


Nicaragua is one of the poorest countries in Latin America in addition to being a Highly Indebted Poor Country (HIPC). In 2002, the IMF and the World Bank approved a reinforcement of the Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy. In the same year, and as a complement to the strategy, the Nicaraguan government published its National Development Strategy.

The plan attempts to address some worrying indicators, such as the unemployment rate, which stood at 20% in 2002, the notorious inequality between the sexes, with women working longer hours for lower wages than men, and the population distribution, with around 55% living in urban areas.


2005 served as an assessment period for the efforts made in relation to the different MDGs, and new measures were outlined to be followed over the forthcoming ten years.
An analysis of the goals for the reduction of infant and maternal mortality, in addition to the creation of conditions that allow better functioning and greater confidence in the health services, lead to the conclusion that: between 1990 and 2003 infant mortality dropped from 52 to 30 cases for every thousand live-births; approximately 85% of pregnant women received specialised assistance during this period; between 1997 and 2001, the incidence of malaria dropped from 915 cases per 100 thousand people to 201.


Another positive note is the evolution seen in the data relating to the increase in primary school enrolments (82%) and the number of pupils completing Year 5 (54%), which has led to an increase in the literacy rates in the 15 to 24-year-old age group (73.2%).

Less positive results have been achieved in the fight against poverty, which afflicts 80% of Nicaragua’s population, with 46% living in extreme poverty, and the promotion of gender equality, which continues to be a distant reality despite an increase to 20% in the number of women holding a parliamentary seat. (MDG 1 and 2, respectively).


Source: Human Development Report - UNDP;The World Factbook ; Human Development Report - UNDP


Where to find Oikos

We work with communities in poorer countries and regions, promoting public health, food, water, sanitation and education.

Where we are...
Where we were...

Follow Us


Actions and Events

February 2020
26 27 28 29 30 31 1
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9 10 11 12 13 14 15
16 17 18 19 20 21 22
23 24 25 26 27 28 29